A BROAD OUTLINE OF THE YOGA PHILOSOPHY:- In the context of the ancient Vedic culture of India, the knowledge that takes one forward & liberates one from the limited experience of body consciousness or body consciousness or the name & form consciousness. The ultimate knowledge that bestows upon one the greater knowledge, Para Vidya. This higher knowledge is clearly differentiated from the lower or the lesser knowledge, which pertains only to things that are within the confines of time, space & causation, that are limited by time, space & causation. This latter knowledge of things that are limited within time & temporary. It is non-eternal. It is the lesser knowledge, & best it can help you to have a comfortable life of physical conveniences, sense satisfaction, & temporary, partial desire-fulfilment. It has not the power—limited, finite things have not the power—to liberate you from lear & sorrow to liberate you from all the limitations & imperfections that pertain to this limited life bound by birth & death, hunger & thirst, joy & sorrow, & the ever-changing experiences of sense contacts. Those who seek a knowledge that beyond this relative knowledge are, therefore, the aspirants for Para Vidya or the higher knowledge which ultimately bestows upon you freedom from bondage, fear & sorrow. This higher knowledge bestows upon you ultimately the experience of your real identity. Your true Self which is beyond the apparent,limited self. It ultimately confers upon you spiritual illumination & perfection, the peace that passeth understanding freedom from all limitations & absolute bliss. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF YOGA:-The philosophy of yoga & the psychology behind its practice—the two are bound up together in such a way that any consideration of the one inevitably has to simultaneously take into account the other, because the practice of Yoga is laid upon the basis of a psycho-philosophical background. The philosophy of Yoga & the psychology of Yoga are present not only as a background to this science of Yoga, but also as the as the basis for the practice of the Yogic processes. It is upon this basis that the different practices have been formulated & presented & this point should be borne in mind always, not only when we make a study of Yoga, but also when we actually practice the different of Yoga. Only then will the practice become more meaningful to us & only then can the practice itself be done in a right way & in a rational way. If this Yoga practice is to be effective, you must know why you are engaging in this practice, what this practice is supposed to achieve for you are expected to gain out of this practice, & what the effect of this practice is aupposed to be upon your own nature, upon your won spiritual state. Otherwise, there would be no terms of reference by which you can ascertain whether the practice is actually proceeding in the right direction or not, whether it is bearing fruits step by step by step or not. Upon what hypothesis, upon what thesis will you judge whether your Yoga practice is progressive or stagnant, whether it is fruitful or sterile? How can you make out? It is only when you have a certain of reference with which you can tally your practice from time to time that you will be in a position to engage in your practice meaningfully, in an effective & satisfactory manner. And that is way it is necessary to bear in mind the psycho-philiosophical basis of these Yoga practices even while you are engaged in them. THE FIVE GREAT VOWS:- In the preceding chapters we saw how all our problems are due to the involvement of the all-perfect, ever-free, blissful Spirit with the imperfect, ever-changeful & dualistic phenomenal nature called Prakriti, & how due to this involvement in Prakriti, many of the imperfection that are inherent in Prakriti are superimposed upon the Purusha who is, in reality, a being totally free from all afflictions. The Purusha has no sorrow, no anxiety, no worry; he has no fear, no pain, no suffering. His experience is always peace & bliss. He is beyond dualities. He is perfect & self-sufficient, & therefore, always free from all afflictions. But yet, due to his proximity to Prakiti & involvement in Prakriti, many of the experiences that lie in Prakriti becomes superimposed upon the Purusha. And the Purusha, as it were, seems to be suffering also, undergoing all sorts of negative painful experiences—fear, anxiety, worry, sorrow, hunger, thirst & so on. The aim & objective of Yoga is to once liberate the Purusha from this involvement & give him a state of being established in his own Self-experiebnce. That is the state of liberation.